Lithium-ion batteries are the most common types of batteries that we use on an everyday basis. These batteries power small devices such as a remote control and even large vehicles like a hybrid car.
A lithium-ion battery is a rechargeable battery. It has the mechanism in which lithium ions move from negative electrode towards positive electrode when discharging the battery and in the opposite direction when the battery is charging.
There are other types of lithium batteries, one of them is just called a lithium battery and is an important distinction from lithium-ion as the lithium battery is a nonrechargeable battery.
In the video, you will see how these lithium-ion batteries are produced for everyday use. It is quite fascinating how these high energy density batteries are manufactured to work in varied environments.
Professor M. Stanley Whittingham is director of the NorthEast Center for Chemical Energy Storage at Binghamton University New York, USA. In 2014, his lab was awarded a $12.8 million grant from the U.S. Department of Energy. These grants are given to fund research centers that are working toward scientific breakthroughs that will benefit the economy and solve existing/future energy storage problems. This video highlights his viewpoint on Li-ion industry, challenges to supply chain companies and end users, and environmental implications of Li-ion technology.
A critical overview of the latest developments in the lithium ion batteries technology is reported. We first describe the evolution in the electrolyte area with particular attention to ionic liquids, discussing the expected application of these room temperature molten salts and listing the issues that still prevent their practical implementation. The attention is then focused on the electrode materials presently considered the most promising for enhancing the energy density of the batteries. At the anode side a discussion is provided on the status of development of high capacity tin and silicon lithium alloys. We show that the morphology that is the most likely to ensure commercial exploitation of these alloy electrodes is that involving carbon-based nanocomposites. We finally touch on super-high-capacity batteries, discussing the key cases of lithium-sulfur and lithium-air and attempting to forecast their chances to eventually reach the status of practically appealing energy storage systems. We conclude with a brief reflection on the amount of lithium reserves in view of its large use in the case of global conversion from gasoline-powered cars to hybrid and electric cars.
Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) — has a higher energy density compared to the NiCd at the expense of reduced cycle life. NiMH contains no toxic metals. Applications include mobile phones and laptop computers.
Lead Acid — most economical for larger power applications where weight is of little concern. The lead-acid battery is the preferred choice for hospital equipment, wheelchairs, emergency lighting and UPS systems.
Lithium Ion (Li-ion) — fastest growing battery system. Li-ion is used where high-energy density and lightweight is of prime importance. The technology is fragile and a protection circuit is required to assure safety. Applications include notebook computers and cellular phones.
Lithium Ion Polymer (Li-ion polymer) — offers the attributes of the Li-ion in ultra-slim geometry and simplified packaging. Main applications are mobile phones.
The three participants in the electrochemical reactions in a lithium-ion battery are the anode, the cathode, and the electrolyte. Both the anode, which is a lithium-containing compound, and the cathode, which is a carbon-containing compound, are materials into which lithium ions can migrate. The electrolyte is a lithium salt in an organic solvent. When a lithium-based cell is discharging, the positive lithium ion is extracted from the cathode and inserted into the anode, releasing stored energy in the process. When the cell is charging, the reverse occurs.
In between are a positive electrode, the cathode, and a negative electrode, the anode. The cathode consists of alithium metal oxide, the anode is a graphite layer. In order for the Li ions to migrate into the cell, the cell is filled with an electrolyte. The electrolyte of the battery must be extremely clean.